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LIBRO COMO CALCULAR EL PRESUPUESTO DE OBRA DESDE CERO [PDF] —> Gratis – IDEAS BRILLANTES

LIBRO COMO CALCULAR EL PRESUPUESTO DE OBRA DESDE CERO [PDF] —> Gratis


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COMO CALCULAR EL PRESUPUESTO DE OBRA DESDE CERO

INTRODUCCION

El cálculo de materiales es una de las actividades que anteceden a la elaboración de un presupuesto.

Para poder calcular materiales es necesario conocer previamente sus características, los factores de desperdicio, las unidades de comercialización de éstos, según el medio, además de los procesos constructivos y todo lo referente al proyecto que se ejecutará.

Todo elemento a construirse se constituye a partir de los materiales que lo conforman, sin embargo se han seleccionado los elementos  más significativos de la obra gris, como ejercicios ilustrativos que muestran una forma de calcular el desglose de materiales.

En este caso: Calculo de materiales para elementos de mampostería, elementos de concreto armado, morteros y estructuras de acero.

CALCULO DE VOLÚMENES DE OBRA

Unidades de medición. En nuestro medio, en la industria de la construcción, es muy frecuente encontrar una gran gama de unidades de  medición tanto del sistema métrico como del sistema inglés y español, por lo que al efectuar cálculos de volúmenes de obra, se debe tener  el cuidado de hacer las respectivas conversiones.

A continuación se mencionan algunas materiales con sus respectivas unidades de medición.

Acero de refuerzo en quintales, Arena, piedra y grava en m3, Cemento en bolsas (1 bolsa = 1 pie3), Madera aserrada en varas, Laminas  galvanizadas en unidades de 2 o 3 yardas

CONCRETO Y MORTERO

Volumen aparente y volumen real. Para el cálculo del volumen de algunos materiales compuestos como el concreto y el mortero, es  necesario conocer el volumen real de sus componentes, pues estos, al estar en forma granulada, presentan vacíos entre sus partículas por lo tanto presentan volúmenes aparentes ya que, al mezclarse entre si, los vacíos de los materiales mas gruesos son ocupados por las  partículas de los mas pequeños y los de estos por el agua.

Coeficiente de aporte.

Es la cantidad real de material que ocupa este dentro de su volumen aparente.

Volumen Real (Vr)=Volumen Aparente (Va)
x coeficiente de aporte (Ca)
Vr = Va x Ca

Coeficiente de aporte de materiales para concreto y mortero:

Arena = 60% , Grava = 60% , Piedra = 60%
Cemento = 50% Agua =100%

Factor de desperdicio.

En la mayoría de los procesos de construcción se debe considerar, en la cuantificación de materiales, un factor de  desperdicio cuyo valor depende del elemento a fabricar y de las condiciones propias de trabajo, por ejemplo: mortero para repello.

Un albañil gastará más mortero para repellar la cara inferior de una losa de entrepiso que la superior aunque ambas caras tengan el  mismo espesor en la capa de repello.

DESCARGA EL CURSO EN PDF AQUI

2 comments

  1. Fernando Javier Montes de Oca

    El libro de Cálculo, no abre, indica dañado

  2. Con toda la informacíon magnifica oprtunidad de aprender y mejorar conocimientos.

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